γεγάμηκα πρόπαλαι ταύτην τὴν Δημώνασσαν, καὶ ἔστιν ἐμὴ γυνή (“I have long since married this [woman] Dēmōnassa, and she is my woman” – Megillos, a trans man, in Lucian of Samosata – C2nd, Dialogues of the Courtesans 5.3)
γάμους Μεσοποταμίας ἡ Βερενίκη ποιεῖται (“Berenice [Queen of Egypt] marries Mesopotamia”, Photius – C10th, Bibliotheca 94, summarising Iamblichus – C2nd)
γυναικες ανδριζονται παρα φυσιν γαμουμεναι τε και γαμουσαι γυναικες (“woman act as men, against nature, women being given in marriage and also marrying [women]”, Clement of Alexandria – late C2nd, Paidagōgos 188.8.131.52)
“Lev 18:13, however, as a general prohibition against imitating the Egyptians and the Canaanites, provided them [the Sifra rabbis] the means to prohibit female homoeroticism in the form of woman-woman marriage.” (Brooten, Love Between Women p.65)
μηποτ’αυτον γημαι αλλην γυναι[κα] μηδε παιδα (“may he never marry another woman or boy”- Defixionum Tabellae Atticae, IG III.3.78, C4th CE
ειτε γυνα τηνωι παρακεκλιται ειτε και ανηρ (“whether woman or man has lain beside him” – Theocritus, Idyll 2, C3rd BCE)
Women at War
“There is also an image of Ares in the marketplace of Tegea. Carved in relief on a slab it is called Gynaecothoenas (He who entertains women). At the time of the Laconian war, when Charillus king of Lacedaemon made the first invasion, the women armed themselves and lay in ambush under the hill they call today Phylactris (Sentry Hill). When the armies met and the men on either side were performing many remarkable exploits, the women, they say, came on the scene and put the Lacedaemonians to flight. Marpessa, surnamed Choera, surpassed, they say, the other women in daring, while Charillus himself was one of the Spartan prisoners. The story goes on to say that he was set free without ransom, swore to the Tegeans that the Lacedaemonians would never again attack Tegea, and then broke his oath; that the women offered to Ares a sacrifice of victory on their own account without the men, and gave to the men no share in the meat of the victim. For this reason Ares got his surname.” – Pausanias, Description of Greece 8.48.4-5 (trans. by Jones and Omerod)
“Of all the deeds performed by women for the community none is more famous than the struggle against Cleomenes for Argos, which the women carried out at the instigation of Telesilla the poetess. She, as they say, was the daughter of a famous house but sickly in body, and so she sent to the god to ask about health; and when an oracle was given her to cultivate the Muses, she followed the god’s advice, and by devoting herself to poetry and music she was quickly relieved of her trouble, and was greatly admired by the women for her poetic art.
But when Cleomenes king of the Spartans, having slain many Argives (but not by any means seven thousand, seven hundred and seventy-seven, as some fabulous narratives have it) proceeded against the city, an impulsive daring, divinely inspired, came to the younger women to try, for their country’s sake, to hold off the enemy. Under the lead of Telesilla they took up arms,3 and, taking their stand by the battlements, manned the walls all round, so that the enemy were amazed. The result was that Cleomenes they repulsed with great loss, and the other king, Demaratus, who managed to get inside, as Socrates says, and gained possession of the Pamphyliacum, they drove out. In this way the city was saved. The women who fell in the battle they buried close by the Argive Road, and to the survivors they granted the privilege of erecting a statute of Ares as a memorial of their surpassing valour.” – Plutarch, On the Bravery of Women 4, 245c-f (trans. by Babbitt)
Note the locations: Arcadia and Argos.
Harmony in Marriage
“in marriage there must be above all perfect companionship and mutual love of husband and wife, both in health and in sickness and under all conditions, since it was with desire for this as well as for having children that both entered upon marriage” – G Musonius Rufus, Lecture 13a
Agricola and Domitia Decidiana “lived in perfect harmony, endeared by the tenderest affection, and each ascribing to the other the felicity which they enjoyed” – Tacitus, Agricola 6
Uettius Agorius Praetextatus to his wife Paulina, “the partnership of our heart is the origin of your propriety; it is the bond of pure love and fidelity born in heaven. To this partnership I entrusted the hidden secrets of my mind; it was a gift of the gods, who bind our marriage couch with loving and with chaste bonds.” – CIL vi.1779